diabetes insipidus

The definitions used in this glossary of terminology either have been provided by the authors of the articles, or have been extracted wholly or in part, or paraphrased from the following sources: The American Medical Association Encyclopedia of Medicine, Charles B. Clayman, MD, Medical Editor, Random House, New York, 1989; Biotechnology from A to Z, 2d Edition, William Bains, Oxford University Press, New York, New York, 2002; A Dictionary of Genetics, 6th Edition, Robert C. King and William D. Stansfield, Oxford University Press, New York, New York, 2002; Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 29th and 30th Editions, W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 2000, 2003; Genes VII, Benjamin Lewin, Oxford University Press, New York, New York, 2000; The Gale Encyclopedia of Genetic Disorders, Volumes I and II, Stacey L. Blachford, Ed., Thomson Learning, New York, New York, 2002; The Merriam-Webster Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, Inc., Springfield, Massachusetts, 1997; Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3rd Edition, Bruce Alberts, et al., Garland Publishing, 1994; The Random House Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged Edition, 1966; Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary, 1991.

DEFINITION:

diabetes insipidus
A disorder of the pituitary gland characterized by intense thirst and by the excretion of large amounts of urine.

diabetes insipidus, central - A metabolic disorder due to injury of the neurohypophyseal system, which results in a deficient quantity of antidiuretic hormone being released or produced, and thus in failure of tubular reabsorption of water in the kidney. As a result, a large amount of urine of low specific gravity is excreted, followed by dehydration and great thirst; it is often attended by voracious appetite, loss of strength, and emaciation. It may be inherited, acquired, or idiopathic.

diabetes insipidus, nephrogenic - A syndrome of polyuria and hyposthenuria caused by the failure of the renal tubules to reabsorb water in response to antidiuretic hormone, without disturbance in the renal filtration and solute excretion rates; the condition does not respond to exogenous vasopressin. It may be inherited as a rare X-linked trait or be acquired as a result of drug therapy or systemic disease.


diabetes insipidus, pituitary - Central diabetes insipidus (See above).

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