G-protein coupled receptors
The definitions used in this glossary of terminology either have been provided by the authors of the articles, or have been extracted wholly or in part, or paraphrased from the following sources: The American Medical Association Encyclopedia of Medicine, Charles B. Clayman, MD, Medical Editor, Random House, New York, 1989; Biotechnology from A to Z, 2d Edition, William Bains, Oxford University Press, New York, New York, 2002; A Dictionary of Genetics, 6th Edition, Robert C. King and William D. Stansfield, Oxford University Press, New York, New York, 2002; Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 29th and 30th Editions, W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 2000, 2003; Genes VII, Benjamin Lewin, Oxford University Press, New York, New York, 2000; The Gale Encyclopedia of Genetic Disorders, Volumes I and II, Stacey L. Blachford, Ed., Thomson Learning, New York, New York, 2002; The Merriam-Webster Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, Inc., Springfield, Massachusetts, 1997; Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3rd Edition, Bruce Alberts, et al., Garland Publishing, 1994; The Random House Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged Edition, 1966; Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary, 1991.
- G-protein coupled receptors
G-proteins are proteins embedded in the surface membrane of cells. These proteins "receive chemical signals" from outside the cell (e.g., hormones) and "pass the signal" into the cell, so that the cell can "respond to the signal." For example, a hormone, drug, neurotransmitter, or other "signal" binds to a receptor molecule on the surface of the cell's exterior membrane. That receptor then activates the G-protein, which causes an effector inside the cell to produce a second "signal" chemical inside the cell, which causes the cell to react to the original external chemical signal.